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Issue 1 - 2023

Issue 1 - 2023

Published online on May 2023

Impact from Bridge Superstructure on Piles in Lateral Spreading Areas

Lalinda Weerasekara

Abstract: Past earthquakes have indicated that bridge superstructure could have a significant impact on the behavior of pile foundations in areas prone to liquefaction and lateral spreading since the pile deformations are generally restrained at the top of the abutment (or pier) while ground movement tends to push the piles towards the direction of the soil movement. This leads to the “back-rotation” of piles, which is different to those typically modeled assuming fixed or free pile head conditions. Although, the superstructure (deck) resistance is considered in simplified approaches such as the Caltrans (2012) method, the analysis cannot simulate the observed back rotation besides several other limitations in modeling of the actual soil-pile-superstructure interaction. This paper proposes a modification to the Caltrans approach where a user-defined “deck spring” is introduced into the pushover analysis to represent the superstructure resistance instead of applying it to the slope stability model. The differences and advantages of the proposed approach compared to the Caltrans method are highlighted using a case history and hypothetical example referenced in Caltrans.

International Journal of Bridge Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2023: pp. 01-22

Seismic Response of Single Span Masonry Arch Bridges Located in Elaziğ and Malatya

Alper Özmen, Erkut Sayin

Abstract: Historical masonry arch bridges are a major portion of the transportation network in the world. They are mostly constructed with brick and stone materials. These structures are reasonably important, for transferring the history and life style of ancient societies. They have to protect against the unexpected effects (i.e., floods, fire, and earthquake). Due to these factors, seismic behavior of these structures must be well known. In this paper, three different single span masonry arch bridges (Veli Palas, Musa Palas and Mavilik) were chosen as a case study. ANSYS software was used to generate three-dimensional finite element model of the bridges. 1992 Erzincan, 1999 Düzce and 2003 Bingöl earthquake records were used for dynamic time history analyses. Displacements, principal stresses, potential damage regions and seismic response of masonry bridges were evaluated after the dynamic analyses.

International Journal of Bridge Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2023: pp. 23-41

Lubrication Oil Condition Monitoring in Internal Combustion Decks Engines

Midhat Victor Fahmi, Osama Mohammed Elmardi Suleiman Khayal, Abdel Gadir AbdelGabar AllaJabo

Abstract: Engines are the main part of power plants and decks sea transport facilities. The performance of the engine depends upon the good condition of the components. The failure of engine components could be reduced by using condition-monitoring techniques. These are including vibration analysis, infrared thermography, and engine used oil analysis. The aim of this research is to reduce the failures of engine components by analyzing the used oil. Oil is the life-blood of engines. Much as if doctors assess human health through blood analysis, engine components can be monitored in much the same manner. Analysis is done for various properties like Viscosity, Total Base Number (TBN), Total Acid Number (TAN), Ash Content, Flash Point, Water Content, Contamination, and Wear Metal particles, which used to monitor the wear rate of engine components. The results of the study showed that the intervals of oil replacement based on the oil quality instead of the fixed running hours extend the intervals of oil replacement and achieve the targeted five thousand hours, resulting in reducing maintenance total cost. In condition monitoring, the study figured out the healthiness of engine internal components and no any potential failures are detected.

International Journal of Bridge Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2023: pp. 43-71

Review on Structural Strength Assessment of Existing Bridges

Neelima Varma, Swati Ajay Kulkarni, Gopal Rai

Abstract: The present study provides a critical overview of the state-of-the-art existing reliability assessment of reinforced concrete bridges. The techniques were classified broadly as Inspection and maintenance, Assessment of condition, posting of bridges, rating of existing bridges, load testing and structural health monitoring. The study revealed various techniques and helpful information that could be employed for superior forecasting of the effective service life of degrading RC bridges as well as in predicting the optimum time for periodic inspection and creating maintenance strategies for continued service life of the bridges. This structural assessment guideline can be applied to all kind of existing bridge structures for all type of structural material (concrete, steel, timber, masonry, composite material). Experience based quantitative assessment of deterioration effects and other damage through visual inspection is carried out where as Serviceability based quantitative assessment of safety and reliability is carried out using refined model based monitoring of static and dynamic test data.

International Journal of Bridge Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2023: pp. 73- 86

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